Ǩǡ
Space Exploration Time Line
.. 1957 - 1962
[ .. 2500-2505 ]


.. 1957 - 1962 | .. 1963 - 1980 | .. 1981 - 2000 | .. 2001 - Ѩغѹ | ͹Ҥ
10 áԪԵǡ | Ẻͧдɢͧ Ǵ ҹǡ



Sputnik 1


Ǵ R7 (Old Number Seven)











4 Ҥ 1957 (..2500)

ʻصԤ 1 (Sputnik 1)
First Earth Satellite - ǧáͧš
First Earth Orbiter - ǧáͧš
First Russian Satellite - ǧáͧ

Ǵ : R7 (Old Number Seven) ҡ Baikonur Cosmodrome
˹ѡ : 83.6 .

ʻصԤ-1 բҴҳ١ࡵ 觢ǧ⤨ͺš» Ѻ繨ش鹢ͧؤǡ (Space Age)

ʻصԤ-1 áԨ㹡õǨѴ˹蹢ͧҡȪ٧ ҡäӹdz¹ŧͧǧ⤨âͧ ҢšáШѭҳԷ㹪鹺ҡ еǨѺءҺҵ ҡš¹ŧسҹ ԴҡŴçѹҫਹè ҡҹѺ

ʻصԤ-1 ͹¤ 29,000 õͪ (18,000 ͪ) ѭҳԷتǧ 20.005 40.002 õ öѺ¹ѡԷѤ蹷š ѭҳԷض١ҧͧ 22 ѹ ͹ẵ ѹ 26 Ҥ ..2500

ʻصԤ-1 㹪鹺ҡ СѺŧš ѹ 4 Ҥ ..2501 ѧҡԹҧҳ 60 ҹ (37 ҹ) 㹪ǧ 3 ͹ ǧ⤨ͺš

Links :


šʻصԤ 2

š

Sputnik 2

3 Ȩԡ¹ 1957 (..2500)

š (Laika)
First Dog in Space - عѢǡȵáͧš

šժԵáͧšǧ⤨ͺš ʻصԤ 2 (Sputnik 2)

š Ҩҡ· "ѡ (barker)" "ѡ͹ (howler)"

繷ҷšªԵѧ觨Ǵ 2-3 ҡ´ Ф͹ (ҨԴҡԴҴ㹡÷ӧҹͧкǺس)

Links :


Explorer 1 50th Anniversary

Explorer 1 Launched

Explorer 1

Ǵ Juno 1

31 Ҥ 1958 (..2501)

͡ 1 (Explorer 1)
First American Satellite - ǧáͧԡ
First Satellite to Discover Earth's Radiation belt - ǧá鹾ǧǹѧբͧš

Ǵ : Juno-1 (繨ǴѴŧҨҡ ABMA-JPL Jupiter-C) ҡҹ

ػóԷʵͧ ǹ Ź (James A. Van Allen) Ӣ仴 Ǩ ǧǹѧբͧš (Earth's radiation belt)

Explorer 1 ժ¡ա˹ Satellite 1958 Alpha ҧ JPL - Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Links :


Explorer 2
5 չҤ 1958 (2501)

͡ 2 (Explorer 2)

ԡ觴 ͡ 2 ǡ¨Ǵ Juno-1 (Jupiter-C) ʺѭ öǧ⤨

Explorer 2 ͹Ѻ Explorer 1

Link :


Vanguard 1

Vanguard 1

Vanguard 1


Vanguard Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-Series)

17 չҤ 1958 (2501)

ǹ 1 (Vanguard 1)
The Oldest Satellite Still Orbiting Earth - شѧǧ⤨
The Oldest Space Junk Still Orbiting Earth - ǡȷشѧǧ⤨

ԡ觴 Vanguard 1 ǧ⤨ Ǵ Vanguard 軯Ժѵԧҹ 3

Vanguard 1 ѡɳ繷ç 鹼ٹҧ 16.5 . (6.4 ) ҧ㹵Դػóѭҳ 2 Ҵ 10 mW 108 MHz 5 mW 108.03 MHz ѺѧҹҡʧҷԵ 6 ҹ͡ҡ 6 ѹ ѧԴػóѴس (Thermisors) 2 Ѵس㹴 㹪ǧ 16 ѹ ʹٻԷҾͧʴػͧѹس

Links :


Sputnik 3

Sputnik 3
15 Ҥ 1958 (2501)

ʻصԤ 3 (Sputnik 3)

觴 Sputnik 3 繼

ʻصԤ 3 չ˹ѡ 1,327 . ѡɳФ¡ 3.57 . аҹҧ 1.73 . ԴػóǨѴ 12 ͵ǨѴ ѹǹСͺͧҡȪ鹺, 鹢ͧ charged particles, ⿵͹ѧդԤ, ͹Ҥ˹ѡѧդԤ, ʹʹ俿ʶԵ, ͹ҤءҺҵ (Meteoric Particles)

繷´ػóѹ֡ź෻ӧҹ ֧öǨѴ ᶺѧǹŹ

ҹǧ⤨ö֧ѹ 6 ¹ 1960 ǧ⤨Ŵŧз觴ҡȢͧš

Links :


Logo ͧ NASA
1 Ҥ 1958 (2501)

͵ NASA

ԡҡ͵ͧǡ N.A.S.A. ᷹˹§ҹ National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics.

Links :


ҹǡ Pioneer 1
11 Ҥ 1958 (2501)

1 (Pioneer 1)
First Spacecraft Launched by NASA - ǧá NASA

ԡ IGY ҹ Pioneer 1 ( Space Probe) ٧ 70,700

Links :


ԧ Gordo

Jupiter IRBM AM-13

13 ѹҤ 1958 (..2501)

(Gordo)
First Monkey in Space - ԧǡȵáͧš

ԡԧáͧš Gordo ǡ ѺǴ Jupiter IRBM AM-13

㹪ǧѺš ԴԴҴѺк ٪վҧ С䡡µӧҹ ǹ nose cone ŧ

Gordo ٧ 300 ˹;š ˹ѡҳ 8.3 ҷ еͧ༪ԭѺç֧ٴ֧ 10 㹪ǧ¨Ǵ ҡ֧ 40 㹪ǧѺš 10,000 ͪ

Gordo ԧͧ͡ԡ (South American squirrel monkey) ٧ҳ 1 ص (30 .) ˹ѡҳ 2-3 ͹ (1-1.5 .) ˵ؼŷ͡ԧ¾ѹ դ¤֧Ѻ͹ҧҡ դ֡ǵ͡¹ŧس

ա÷ͧԧ¾ѹ仡ѺǴ ԧ rhesus, ԧ cynomolgus, ԧ͡ (squirrel monkeys) ֧ pig-tailed macaques

Links :


ҹ Luna 1


ҹ Luna 1

2 Ҥ 1959 (..2502)

ҹٹ 1 (Luna 1)
First Spaceship to the Moon - ҹǡáǧѹ
First Russian Spaceship to the Moon - ҹǡáǧѹ
First Spaceship to orbit the Sun - ҹǡá⤨ͺǧҷԵ

ҹٹ 1 ѧǧѹ ͡ҡҹǡáͧš件֧ǧѹ ѧҹáشç֧ٴͧš⤨ͺǧҷԵա

ٹ 1 չ˹ѡ 361 . 觨ҡҹ Tyuratam (Baikonur Cosmodrome) ¨Ǵ SS-6

Link :


Ǵ 2


Ǵ 2


ҹ Pioneer 4


ҹ Pioneer 4

3 չҤ 1959 (..2502)

ҹ 4 (Pioneer 4)
First American Spaceship to the Moon - ҹǡԡѹáǧѹ
First American Spaceship to orbit the Sun - ҹǡԡѹá⤨ͺǧҷԵ

ԡѺ IGY ҹ Pioneer 4 ¨Ǵ Juno II ѧǧѹ ҹ͹ҹǧѹ 37,000 (59,533 .) ǧ⤨ͺǧҷԵ ҹáͧԡҷ⤨ͺǧҷԵ

4 չ˹ѡ 5.9 .ҧ Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Ǵ Juno 2 繨Ǵ觴ش Explorer Pioneer 㹪ǧ ..1958 ֧ 1961

Link :








Jupiter AM-18

28 Ҥ 1959 (..2502)

Ѻ (Able and Baker)

Jupiter AM-18 繨Ǵͧԡ 觨ҡ Cape Canaveral ͹ժԵǡ Сͺ ԧ 2 (Able) Ѻ (Baker) ֧ѵ좹Ҵ оת ʹټšзͧ˹ѡ Сѧǡ յժԵ

Ѻѵ§١¹ Ƿ 2 3 ǡ

Link :


ҹ Luna 2


Luna Pennants

12 ѹ¹ 1959 (..2502)

ҹٹ 2 (Luna 2)
First Man-made Object to Hit the Moon - 觻дɰͧá誹ǧѹ

ҹ Luna 2 ѧǧѹ ѹ 12 ѹ¹ 1959 06:39:42 UTC ҹٹ 2 Ѻǧѹѹ 14 ѹ¹ 1959 22:02:24 UTC ˹ 29.1° N 0° W Сѵتáͧšǧѹ

ҹյѭѡɳͧµ (Soviet Coat of Arms)

ҹٹ 2 չ˹ѡ 390.5 . Թҧҡšǧѹ 33.5 .

Link :



ҹ Luna 3


ҹ Luna 3

4 Ҥ 1959 (..2502)

ҹٹ 3 (Luna 3)
First Satellite to Take Pictures of the Moon's Far Side - ǧáͧšѹ֡Ҿҹ״ͧǧѹ

ҹ Luna 3 ⤨ͺǧѹ жҾ 70% ͧҹ״ͧǧѹ

ҹٹ 3 չ˹ѡ 278.5 .觢ѹ 4 Ҥ 1959 02:24:00 ͹ҹǧѹѹ 6 Ҥ 1959 14:16 UTC ҧ 6,200 .Ѻͧǧѹ

Link :

11 չҤ 1960 (..2503)

ҹ 5 (Pioneer 5)

ҹǡȢͧԡ Ѵʹ硢ͧš, ͹Ҥͧ ѧդԤ

Link :








Tyros 1

1 ¹ 1960 (..2503)

ҹ 1 (Tiros 1)
First Meteorological Satellite - صعԷҴǧáͧš

ԡ觴صعԷҴǧá TIROS-1 ǧ⤨ͺš ѹ 1 ¹ 1960 ҡҹ Դ ӧҹ 78 ѹ

չ˹ѡ 270 ͹ (120 .) Դ駡ͧ÷ȹ 2 ػóѹ֡෻ 㹡úѹ֡Ҿ ʹա Ѻѧҹ俿ҨҡẵշѺûШ俨ҡʧҷԵ 9200 ἧ

Link :




Transit 1

13 ¹ 1960 (..2503)

ҹԷ 1 (Transit 1)
First Military Satellite - ôǧáͧšͧԡ

кҹԷ (Transit ͷ¡ NAVSAT - Navy Navigation Satellite System) кͧҹ ˹觷١ͧšʹӹӷúջ ѧ㹡Ǩҧطʵ

Transit 1A ʺ㹡͹ѹ¹ 1959 ǹ Transit 1B ١觢ǧ⤨ѹ 13 ¹ 1960 ¨Ǵ Thor-Ablestar

Transit ͷ¡ OSCAR NOVA 繴ǧ⤨õ ⤨üҹš ٧ͧǧ⤨ 1,100 . դҺ⤨ 106 ҷ/ͺ кСͺ´ӹǹ 5 ǧ 㹷ҧԺѵ ա֧ 10 ǧ (5 ǧԧ + 5 ǧͧ)

Link :




Echo 1

12 ԧҤ 1960 (..2503)

ͤ 1 (Echo 1)
NASA's First Passive Communications Satellite - кʫտǧáͧš

Ѱԡ觴ôǧáͧš 觶١§͡÷ͺкüҹ ҹ

ٻç öз͹ǿҨҡش㴨ش˹觺š ѧաش˹

Link :




Discoverer XIV

18 ԧҤ 1960 (..2503)

ʤѿ 14 (Discoverer XIV)
First Spy Satellite - áǧáͧš
First satellite to be ejected from an orbiting space vehicle and to be recovered in midair - ǧá١͡ҡǧ⤨ж١Ѻҧҡ

١觢¨Ǵ Thor ҡҹѾҡǹഹ Կ դ 17,658 /. ǧ⤨٧ 116 perigee ٧ 502 apogee

Links :

cnes logo
CNES

cnes logo
Ҥâͧ CNES ͧ Ƚ

..2504 (1961)

Ѵͧǡ CNES

繪ҵԷ 3 Ѵͧǡ ժ ๫ (CNES - The Centre National d'Études Spatiale) 㹻 ..2504 ӹѡҹ˭ا CNES ˹ҷ֡ѡԹǡȽ ͹áԨѺ ESA - European Space Agency 㹻 2001

CNES tracking station :

  • Kourou French Guyana
  • Issus Aussaguel, ҧ 20 .ҡͧ (Toulouse)
  • Kerguelen Island, зҧѺջ͹줵ԡ
  • Hartebeesthoek, ҿԡ
  • Kiruna, ഹ Ѻç SPOT

Links :






ԧ "" Mercury Redstone 2

Mercury Redstone 2
31 Ҥ 1961 (2504)

NASA ԧỹժ (Ham) 仡Ѻҹǡ Kennedy Space Center ҹǡȢ٧ 157 áԨҷ 16 ҷ 39 Թҷ ԧ "" ʹԵ ҡŧʹط͵ŹԤ

Links :




ҡԹ




ҹ Vostok 1


Vostok 1 Deorbit Sequence

R7-Vostok Blueprint

᤻ʷ͡ 1 Ѵʴ ԾԸѳ RKK Energiya

Ẻ᤻ͧʷ͡ 1

12 ¹ 1961 (..2504)

ҡԹ (Yuri Gagarin) ҹʷ͡ 1 (Vostok 1)
First Astronaut - ѡԹǡȤáͧš
First Male Astronaut - ѡԹǡȪ¤áͧš
First Manned Earth Orbiter - ҹǡչѡԹšͧš

ҡԹ 繹ѡԹǡ()áͧš ١觢价ͧǡȡѺҹʷ͡ (Vostok)

ҹʷ͡ ˹ѡ 4,700 . ҹǡȷöѧѺ ѡԹǡȵͧⴴ٪վ͡Ѻšͧ áԨͧ ҡԹ ҡԹҧͺš 1 ͺ 1 48 ҷ áԨѴ˹ ѡԹѹ ાԴ (Alan Sheperd) ӡúԹӡǧ⤨ (Suborbital Manned Flight) ֧͹

ҡԹ Դҹ ҧȵѹͧا ѹ 9 չҤ ..2477 ѧҡ¹ç¹ 6 ֡ҵç¹෤Ԥ 㹡ͧѾҡ 㹻 .. 2498 Ш֡дѺõԹҡç¹ͧѾҡȢͧ 㹻 ..2500 ѧҡ 繹ѡԹ㹡ͧѾҡȢͧ зѺ͡Ѻý֡繹ѡԹǡáͧ ӹǹ 20 㹻 ..2503

ԺѵáԨ§ǡ ѹ 12 ¹ ..2504 Ѻ¡ͧ줹áͧš ⤨ͺšҹǡ ʷ͡ 1 (Vostok 1) ҹ 108 ҷ 27,400 õͪ ٧ش˹;š 327 㹡ûԺѵԡä駹 Էͧҹй˹ѡ §ҹռšз ҹʷ͡ 1 ҹǺҡѭҳԷ ͧҡաäҴ ˹ѡҨռšз͡͹ǢͧѡԹ ҧá öǺҹʷ͡㹡ó˵ءóءԹ áԨó մ͡ҡҹʷ͡ 1 ŧš䫺´٪վ

֧ ѹ 27 չҤ ..2511 ҡغѵ˵ءõͧͧԹͺ MiG-15UTI ا


´áԨ :

  • ѹظ 12 ¹ 2506 1 ҷա͹û¨Ǵ ҡԹ ѹ֧֡ͤ͹ҹ Ъšء
  • ùѺѧ ͧǺҾͧԻҡͷ ˹ҷҡùѺѧѧ ԵͺѺҷءҧҾº ҾԹҧ
  • 06:07 UTC Ǵҹ鹨ҡҹ õԴҧͧǺѺ ѧ繻
  • 06:09 UTC 2 ҷѧҡ¨Ǵ ͹Ǵ 4 ͹ ԧ١Ŵ͡
  • 06:10 UTC Ҥ˹ҵҧҢͧԴ͡
  • 06:12 UTC 5 ҷѧ¨Ǵ ͹Ǵѡԧ١Ŵ͡ ǴѺѹ͹شӧҹ͹ҹʷ͡ 1 ǧ⤨ͺš
  • 06:13 UTC ҹʷ͡ 1 ǧ⤨ §ҹҷءҧ繻 öͧš ȹ´
  • 06:14 UTC ҹʷ͡ 1 ⤨üҹ͹ҧͧ §ҹʶҹҤ鹴Թкӧҹ繻
  • 06:15 UTC §ҹԹ§ҡʶҹҤ鹴Թ ѧ繻 ШлԺѵԡõ 駴ʶҹҤ鹴ԹҨͧ¹ͧѭҳ
  • 06:17 UTC ҹʷ͡ 1 ԴǴѺѹش ¡͡ §ҹҷءҧ仵Ἱ
  • 06:21 UTC ԡѧ˹طừԿԡ §ҹѧ繻Դ
  • 06:25 UTC ҹʷ͡ 1 ͹ҹطừԿԤ ѧԡ ԶʶҹҤ鹴Թ֧ʶҹҾͧúԹ ʶҹ ׹ѹҷءҧ繻
  • 06:31 UTC §ҹʶҹҤ鹴Թ Khabarovsk ֡ҡ Тʶҹ §ҹʶҹҾͧúԹҷҺ ѧҡѭҳõԴ͡Ҵ
  • 06:46 UTC ʶҹҤ鹴Թ ѧҹͧ §ҹʶҹҾͧúԹ ԵͺѺ 06:48 UTC
  • 06:48 UTC ҹʷ͡ 1 ͹ҹٹٵ мҹҧͧừԿԡ §ҹʶҹҾͧúԹ 繻Դ
  • 06:49 UTC §ҹҧҹ״ͧš
  • ѧԹԺѵԡõ §ҹʶҹҤ鹴Թ
  • 07:35-07:55 UTC ҹʷ͡ 1 ͹Ǽҹ Ի ½觵͹ͧ䫻 ͹ҧͧá ҹ ŴдѺŧ ͡Ѻš §ҹҡѧ༪ԭѺçҳ 10G ѧʵԴ
  • 07:55 UTC ҹʷ͡ 1 ҧҡ鹴Թ 7 ͧԹҷյ ԡⴴ͡ҡҹ ҹ ŧ鹴Թ٪վ
  • ҵ ѡ¹˭ԧ 2 繼᤻ʷ͡ 1 ŧСд͹ҡ鹴Թ ԴҴ˭
  • һҳ 08:05 UTC ҡԹ ŧ鹴¤ʹ 㹪شǡǡѡԹǡ˭բ ҹѧ§ԴѺ٪վ ҾѺǹ١Ƿͧͧ¤ ԡǡѺǡ "ͧǤѺ 繪µǡѹѺس 觡ѺŧҨҡǡеͧѾ"


ҹʷ͡ 1 (Vostok 1)

ҹʷ͡ 1 2 ǹѡ :

  • ᤻ : ͡ҡ繷觢ͧѡԹǡ (cosmonaut) ѧ繾˹зѺš ᤻ѡɳ繷ç Ҵ鹼ٹҧ 2.3 ˹ѡ 2.46 ѹ Сͺ 觢ͧѡԹǡ, ػóҧ, кź˹
  • ҹѺѹ : ѡɳФ·çк͡ 2.25 ҧ 2.43 ˹ѡ 2.27 ѹ Сͺ кͧ¹ԧ

᤻Ŷ١͡Ẻ鷹ͤ͹ͺҹ з鹺ҡ աèѴҧػóչ˹ѡҡ㹵˹觷 ѡԹǡ͡ʷʹҡç йҺ ҧá աäӹdzҹѡԹǡȨеͧ༪ԭѺçբҴ 8-9 ·

㹢СѺš ѡԹǡȨдմ͡ҡ᤻ дѺ٧ 7,000 (23,000 ص) ٪վ㹡ŧ ᤻Ũе¡ѺѡԹǡ


Links :




ѹ ાԴ




᤻ſմ 7




Ǵ Mercury-Redstone

5 Ҥ 1961 (..2504)

ѹ ાԴ (Alan B. Shepard, Jr.)
First American Male Astronaut - ѡԹǡȪªԡѹáͧš

ѹ ાԴ (Alan B. Shepard, Jr.) 繪ԡѹáǡ ᤻ſմ (Freedom 7) ͧç Mercury 3

Ǵ MR-7 ҹ价٧ 116.5 ҷ 15 ҷ 28 Թҷ

Links :






Ź (John H. Glenn, Jr.)




᤻ùԻ

20 Ҿѹ 1962 (..2505)

Ź (John H. Glenn, Jr.)
First American Male Astronaut Orbiting the Earth - ѡԹǡȪªԡѹáͧš⤨ͺš

Ź (John H. Glenn, Jr.) 繪ԡѹá⤨ͺš ᤻ùԻ (Friendship 7) ͧç Mercury 6

Ǵ Atlas Rocket 109-D ҹ价٧ҧ 160 256 ҷ 4 55 ҷ 23 Թҷ

Links :




Ariel 1

26 ¹ 1962 (..2505)

1 (Ariel 1)
First English Satellite - ǧáͧѧ

ǧáͧѧ 觶١觢Ѱԡ

Links :




Telstar 1

10 áҤ 1962 (..2505)

ʵ 1 (Telstar 1)
First (Active) Telecommunication Satellite - äҤǧáͧš

ǧáͧšͧԡ ١ҹкäҤҹԧ ö·ʹѭҳ÷ȹط͵ŹԤ

Links :




Alouette 1

29 ѹ¹ 1962 (..2505)

1 (Alouette 1)
First Canadian Satellite - ǧá᤹ͧҴ

ǧá᤹ͧҴ 觢ǧ⤨ԡ ֡Ҫ鹺ҡ (Ionosphere) ¨Ǵ Thor-Agena ͧԡ ҡҹѾҡǹഹ (Vandenburg) Կ

᤹ҴҨ֧繻ȷ 3 ö觴 ѧҡ ԡ

Links :






Mariner 2

14 ѹҤ 1962 (..2505)

չ 2 (Mariner 2)
First Successful Planetray Spacecraft - ҹǡáͧšԹҧҧ First Spacecraft to Visit Venus - ҹǡáͧšԹҧ仴ء

ҹչ 2 Թҧҹء ͹ѹҤ 1962 ǧ⤨ͺǧҷԵ

Links :


.. 1957 - 1980 | .. 1981 - 2000 | .. 2001 - Ѩغѹ | ͹Ҥ
10 áԪԵǡ | Ẻͧдɢͧ Ǵ ҹǡ


LINKS
Gunter's Space Page
www.answers.com
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Animals in Space
Planetary Exploration Timeline
10 ҵáԪԵǡ
Time Line at mek.kosmo.cz
How high is space?
SLR Satellite Information
Satellite Images
Pictures of Satellites
Notable Staffed Space Flights



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